Zoology - Easy

Worker ants are all females.

Worker ants do not have any wings and are all females.

Most male ants have wings. But wingless males do not forage outside the nests. 

Ergatomorph wingless males in Technomyrmex vitiensis Mann

Ergatomorph wingless males are known in several species of the genus Technomyrmex Mayr, 1872. The first record of these males is given in T. vitiensis Mann, 1921. In comparison with winged males, wingless males have a smaller thorax and genitalia, but both forms have ocelli and the same size of eyes. Wingless males seem to form a substantial portion (more than 10%) of all adults in examined colony fragments. Wingless males are present in colonies during the whole year, whereas the presence of winged males seems to be limited by season. Wingless males do not participate in the taking care of the brood and active foraging outside the nest. Males of both types possess metapleural gland openings. Beside males with normal straight scapes, strange hockey stick-like scapes have been observed in several males. The cause of this divergence is unclear.

Journal Of Hymenoptera Research, Ergatomorph wingless males in Technomyrmex vitiensis Mann, 2016.

"Wingless males do not participate in the taking care of the brood and active foraging outside the nest". Hence all wingless ants foraging outside the nests are definitely all females. This was only known recently, however this was portrayed in the Quran 1400 years before it was discovered. The Quran addressed ants that cannot fly in the female mode:

Quran 27:18

Until, when they came upon the valley of the ants, an ant said, "O ants, enter your homes so that you do not be crushed by Solomon and his soldiers while they do not feel it."

١٨ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَتَوْا عَلَىٰ وَادِ النَّمْلِ قَالَتْ نَمْلَةٌ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّمْلُ ادْخُلُوا مَسَاكِنَكُمْ لَا يَحْطِمَنَّكُمْ سُلَيْمَانُ وَجُنُودُهُ وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ

For the word "said": Kala (قال) is for males. Kalat ( قَالَتْ) is for females. The Quran used Kalat قَالَتْ (female).

If this ant had wings it would have flown off however it didn't have this option; instead its only option was to hide underground. Since it didn't have wings then this was definitely a female ant. Here the Quran correctly addressed this ant in the female mode.

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that foraging wingless ants are all females?

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